ICS History Page.
1891: Due to an excessive amount of mining accidents, a Thomas J. Foster
championed that miners be educated in mine safety beyond
what they learn from their apprenticeships.
In an editorial for the October 1891 edition of "The Colliery
Engineer", published in Shenandoah Pennsylvania, the editor announced
an arrangement between the journal and a Alexander Dick to conduct a school
of mining. The school was known as "The Colliery Engineer School of Mines".
The U.S. Post Office introduced its rural free delivery system (RFD).
1894: The International Textbook Company incorporated the school,
Even so, the names Colliery Engineer School of Mines, School of Mines,
Correspondence Schools, and the International Correspondence School were used
1895: The state of Pennsylvania passed the Mine Safety Act of 1885, requiring
miners and inspectors to pass examinations on mine safety.
Miners demanded information to help prepare
them for the examination. Foster began
publishing a "question and answer column" in the journal on mining
methods and mining machinery. Later the column was renamed to the
"correspondence column." Foster invited miners to send questions and
problems to the staff and they would answer them. The number of
questions was so great that the staff had trouble providing satisfactory
solutions. In response, Foster began preparing correspondence courses
in coal mining.
1895: The school became officially known as the
International Correspondence Schools of Scranton, Pennsylvania or ICS
for short. On the original incorporation papers, however, it is called
"The International Correspondence School, United States".
According to school records, the first class enrolled 500 miners.
ICS started filing copyrights in Great Briton,
At the time, it was believed to be more
advantageous to the copyrighter. At least six cases of copyright theft were
won against other schools who had appropriated Colliery materials.
1902: The Colliery Engineer School of Mines and ICS part amicably. Foster
goes with Colliery.
1903: Over 190,000 students had enrolled in ICS courses, not counting the
Colliery Schools students.
1905: The Colliery Engineer School of Mines completes full breakaway and
specializes in mining and mine safety. ICS drops all mining and mining
safety courses. ICS adds commercial education, "English Branches," and
forty other engineering trades. The Colliery Engineer School of Mines
continues to develop course work for ICS into late 1960s, sometimes
miss marking the copyright holder as International Textbook Company.
1910: Over 100,000 new students per
year were enrolling. A million cumulative
enrollments had been achieved.
1913: The U.S. Post Office begins its parcel post
service. Before this, ICS sent courses via four different
parcel posts. The program was called 'Course in a Crate'.
1930: Four million cumulative enrollments had been achieved.
1939: ICS's reputation was such that it was given the War Department
contract to develop the department's training manuals.
1916: As three million people now served by RFD (Rural Free Delivery). ICS
downgrades the 'Course in a Crate' program, and streamlines to RFD standards.
This included self-addressed envelopes, and the 'TP' format. For those
not addressable by RFD, the 'BBs' format was created. BBs later became
a 'premium' option.
ICS offered its students an installment plan. Courses could be paid for in advance
or on a "sixty-days-same-as-cash" basis. Most students, opted
for paying in three-, five-, or ten-dollar monthly installments.
1920s: As more American teenagers began attending local grade and high
schools, ICS starts the advertising campaigns and specialty trade courses
1940s: As more Americans utilize the GI Bill, ICS starts a downward slope
in enrollments. The AA and BA/BS degrees offered by two-year and four-year
institutions had more prestige than any certificate offered by ICS and
other correspondence schools.
1985: The ICS Celebrity Spokespeople commercials. Sally Struthers, and William
Shatner were two of the eleven celebrities used.
1990: Ten Millionth student.
1994: The Majere Estate formed. 'Majere' as he was affectionately known,
wanted his works, his references, and other papers preserved for
prosperity. He also wanted to found and fund a source to provide
real materials for various trade students.
1996: 'The International Correspondence School, United States', went into
bankruptcy. As most of the copyrights were registered in the United Kingdom,
and not in the United States, they were sold, per U.K. law. The purchaser
was the Majere Estate.
The Colliery Engineer School of Mines (later "Education Direct" and "Penn Foster")
bought the trademarks, but no copyrights. Any materials that were created
by the Colliery Engineer School of Mines for ICS (1951-1991) were released
into the public domain.
The 'International Correspondence School, Canada', 'The International
Correspondence School, United Kingdom', and 'The Colliery Engineer
School of Mines' agreed
not to use the prior course materials purchased by the Majere Estate.
The Majere Estate works, with UK only copyrights make up the physical ICS
20000331. 'Education Holdings 1, Inc' first incorporated.
2003: The 'Colliery Engineer School of Mines' is renamed to 'Education Direct',
moving from correspondence to online, and expanded it's offerings.
2004: The ICS Archive project begins under the purvey of the Librum.
2005: The Majere Estate vs Colliery Engineer School of Mines/Education Direct court
cases start. Charges of violations of contracts, rights dilution, and unethical
legal practice levied.
2007: Wicks Acquires the Penn Foster trademarks. 'Penn Foster' trademark
'leased' out to 'Education Direct 1 Inc'.
2008: Bachelors degrees offered by Penn Foster.
2008: November: Majere laid to rest.
2009: 'The Princeton Review Inc' acquires the 'Penn Foster' and 'Education
Direct 1 Inc' trademarks.
2010: 'The Princeton Review Inc', accused of falsely billing the federal
government for tens of million of dollars in tutoring programs to New
York City students it did not provide.
2011: Penn Foster copyrights 'Americas Largest High School'. Copyright
seized by 'The Princeton Review Inc', in suit, and 'Penn Foster'
officially court chastised.
20110912: Authors Suit vs HathiTrust filed.
201202: February: Final round of court cases between the Majere Estate
vs Princeton Review et. all. won. But penalty proceedings held up pending
federal decision of the fine amount of the 2010 accusation.
201205: The Princeton Review Inc. changes its primary name to 'Education Holdings 1 Inc'.
'The Princeton Review' brand/trademark, is bought by an unrelated company.
This includes the 'Penn Foster' trademarks. 'Education Holdings 1, Inc'
reincorporated on 20120515.
20120401: ICSArchive.org domain registered. Re missioned to ... 'act as
intermediary for questioners on what materials are under active copyright
of the Majere Estate and which are under the public domain ... to restore
into electronic format any 'common' copyrighted materials, and to provide
free access thereto ... to facilitate copyright compliance of
would be users of said material'.
20121010: HathiTrust Digital Library (HDL)(et. all.)(including Majere Estate)
vs Authors Guild wins suit. Decision broadens fair use, broadens
international copyright law, and protections. Decision also 'codifies'
copyrights in digital works in the international domain.
201211: Definition of what is considers 'common' is made by the Majere Estate,
and imposed on the ICS Archives mission. The definition is: 'Three copies
to be common, physical copies, electronic do not apply' Only
'common' works may be put up on site. The ICS Archive further tasked to
start a massive digitization campaign for Hathi Trust to review and purchase
usage rights thereof.
Hathi is being allowed to 'pick-and-choose' from the works, but keep
the ICS Archive's publicly
made assets limited. Intent is to leverage the procural costs, digitization
costs, etc, in light
that the pending government decision against Education Holdings 1 will
reduce the Majere Estates' legal
efforts to being 'pyrrhic victories'.
20121220: In a $10 million-plus settlement 'Education Holdings 1 Inc' admits
fault, to include fabricating invoices and sign-in sheets to bill the
federal government from 2002 to 2008.
Much of the settlement money money was the sale of the 'Penn Foster' and
'Princeton Review' trademarks and other assets. NO ICS materials were
allowed to be claimed as assets, at the petitions of the Majere Estate,
'International Correspondence School, United Kingdom' and 'International
Correspondence School, Canada'.
20130121: Education Holdings 1 Inc., now no longer including Penn Foster,
files Chapter 11 bankruptcy petition. $7 million dollar loan tap approved.
20130318: 'REVUQ', the stock exchange code for 'Education Holdings 1 Inc
Com Stk (DE)' removed from stock exchange. Cusip# 28141C104.
201303: Education Holdings 1 Inc exits chapter 11.
20130609: In filings the Majere Estate requests expediting of legal proceedings, fearing 'nothing
left on the bone', specifically requests all training materials copyrights of 1951-1991, but
declines to purchase trademarks or any other assets. The Majere Estate publicly states that
any such works so obtained will be offered via the ICS Archive and the Hathi Trust.
201402: HathiTrust Digital Library (HDL) vs Authors Guild (AG) (2012), and the Majere
Estate vs WHP (2011) form the kernel behind the 2013 International Public Domain Works
Reconciliation. This 'reconciliation', under the auspices of the United Nations
remove much of the minefield of what public domain is in every part of the world.
But not all countries have accepted the reconciliation.
201501: In a surprise ruling, Scriveners Hall, the copyright registrar for
the United Kingdom, is allowed to 'discount' any claims of
copyright violations originating from any country who is not signed into the
All other signers adopt this ruling, unanimously, effectually gutting the
powers of the countries who did not sign. Per the report, these countries
will be allowed to adopt the reconciliation in May, 2015