ICS History Page.



1891: Due to an excessive amount of mining accidents, a Thomas J. Foster championed that miners be educated in mine safety beyond what they learn from their apprenticeships.

In an editorial for the October 1891 edition of "The Colliery Engineer", published in Shenandoah Pennsylvania, the editor announced an arrangement between the journal and a Alexander Dick to conduct a school of mining. The school was known as "The Colliery Engineer School of Mines".

The U.S. Post Office introduced its rural free delivery system (RFD).

1894: The International Textbook Company incorporated the school, Even so, the names Colliery Engineer School of Mines, School of Mines, Correspondence Schools, and the International Correspondence School were used interchangeably.

1895: The state of Pennsylvania passed the Mine Safety Act of 1885, requiring miners and inspectors to pass examinations on mine safety.

Miners demanded information to help prepare them for the examination. Foster began publishing a "question and answer column" in the journal on mining methods and mining machinery. Later the column was renamed to the "correspondence column." Foster invited miners to send questions and problems to the staff and they would answer them. The number of questions was so great that the staff had trouble providing satisfactory solutions. In response, Foster began preparing correspondence courses in coal mining.

1895: The school became officially known as the International Correspondence Schools of Scranton, Pennsylvania or ICS for short. On the original incorporation papers, however, it is called "The International Correspondence School, United States".

According to school records, the first class enrolled 500 miners.

ICS started filing copyrights in Great Briton, At the time, it was believed to be more advantageous to the copyrighter. At least six cases of copyright theft were won against other schools who had appropriated Colliery materials.

1902: The Colliery Engineer School of Mines and ICS part amicably. Foster goes with Colliery.

1903: Over 190,000 students had enrolled in ICS courses, not counting the Colliery Schools students.

1905: The Colliery Engineer School of Mines completes full breakaway and specializes in mining and mine safety. ICS drops all mining and mining safety courses. ICS adds commercial education, "English Branches," and forty other engineering trades. The Colliery Engineer School of Mines continues to develop course work for ICS into late 1960s, sometimes miss marking the copyright holder as International Textbook Company.

1910: Over 100,000 new students per year were enrolling. A million cumulative enrollments had been achieved.

1913: The U.S. Post Office begins its parcel post service. Before this, ICS sent courses via four different parcel posts. The program was called 'Course in a Crate'.

1930: Four million cumulative enrollments had been achieved.

1939: ICS's reputation was such that it was given the War Department contract to develop the department's training manuals.

1916: As three million people now served by RFD (Rural Free Delivery). ICS downgrades the 'Course in a Crate' program, and streamlines to RFD standards. This included self-addressed envelopes, and the 'TP' format. For those not addressable by RFD, the 'BBs' format was created. BBs later became a 'premium' option.

ICS offered its students an installment plan. Courses could be paid for in advance or on a "sixty-days-same-as-cash" basis. Most students, opted for paying in three-, five-, or ten-dollar monthly installments.

1920s: As more American teenagers began attending local grade and high schools, ICS starts the advertising campaigns and specialty trade courses concentrations.

1940s: As more Americans utilize the GI Bill, ICS starts a downward slope in enrollments. The AA and BA/BS degrees offered by two-year and four-year institutions had more prestige than any certificate offered by ICS and other correspondence schools.

1985: The ICS Celebrity Spokespeople commercials. Sally Struthers, and William Shatner were two of the eleven celebrities used.

1990: Ten Millionth student.

1994: The Majere Estate formed. 'Majere' as he was affectionately known, wanted his works, his references, and other papers preserved for prosperity. He also wanted to found and fund a source to provide real materials for various trade students.

1996: 'The International Correspondence School, United States', went into bankruptcy. As most of the copyrights were registered in the United Kingdom, and not in the United States, they were sold, per U.K. law. The purchaser was the Majere Estate.

The Colliery Engineer School of Mines (later "Education Direct" and "Penn Foster") bought the trademarks, but no copyrights. Any materials that were created by the Colliery Engineer School of Mines for ICS (1951-1991) were released into the public domain.

The 'International Correspondence School, Canada', 'The International Correspondence School, United Kingdom', and 'The Colliery Engineer School of Mines' agreed not to use the prior course materials purchased by the Majere Estate.

The Majere Estate works, with UK only copyrights make up the physical ICS Archive collection.

20000331. 'Education Holdings 1, Inc' first incorporated. 2003: The 'Colliery Engineer School of Mines' is renamed to 'Education Direct', moving from correspondence to online, and expanded it's offerings.

2004: The ICS Archive project begins under the purvey of the Librum.

2005: The Majere Estate vs Colliery Engineer School of Mines/Education Direct court cases start. Charges of violations of contracts, rights dilution, and unethical legal practice levied.

2007: Wicks Acquires the Penn Foster trademarks. 'Penn Foster' trademark 'leased' out to 'Education Direct 1 Inc'.

2008: Bachelors degrees offered by Penn Foster.

2008: November: Majere laid to rest.

2009: 'The Princeton Review Inc' acquires the 'Penn Foster' and 'Education Direct 1 Inc' trademarks.

2010: 'The Princeton Review Inc', accused of falsely billing the federal government for tens of million of dollars in tutoring programs to New York City students it did not provide.

2011: Penn Foster copyrights 'Americas Largest High School'. Copyright seized by 'The Princeton Review Inc', in suit, and 'Penn Foster' officially court chastised.

20110912: Authors Suit vs HathiTrust filed.

201202: February: Final round of court cases between the Majere Estate vs Princeton Review et. all. won. But penalty proceedings held up pending federal decision of the fine amount of the 2010 accusation.

201205: The Princeton Review Inc. changes its primary name to 'Education Holdings 1 Inc'. 'The Princeton Review' brand/trademark, is bought by an unrelated company. This includes the 'Penn Foster' trademarks. 'Education Holdings 1, Inc' reincorporated on 20120515.

20120401: ICSArchive.org domain registered. Re missioned to ... 'act as intermediary for questioners on what materials are under active copyright of the Majere Estate and which are under the public domain ... to restore into electronic format any 'common' copyrighted materials, and to provide free access thereto ... to facilitate copyright compliance of would be users of said material'.

20121010: Hathi Trust (et. all.)(including Majere Estate) wins suit. Decision broadens fair use, broadens international copyright law, and protections.

201211: Definition of what is considers 'common' is made by the Majere Estate, and imposed on the ICS Archives mission. The definition is: 'Three copies to be common, physical copies, electronic do not apply' Only 'common' works may be put up on site.
The ICS Archive further tasked to start a massive digitization campaign for Hathi Trust to review and purchase usage rights thereof.
Hathi is being allowed to 'pick-and-choose' from the works, but keep the ICS Archive's publicly made assets limited. Intent is to leverage the procural costs, digitization costs, etc, in light that the pending government decision against Education Holdings 1 will reduce the Majere Estates' legal efforts to being 'pyrrhic victories'.

20121220: In a $10 million-plus settlement 'Education Holdings 1 Inc' admits fault, to include fabricating invoices and sign-in sheets to bill the federal government from 2002 to 2008. Much of the settlement money money was the sale of the 'Penn Foster' and 'Princeton Review' trademarks and other assets. NO ICS materials were allowed to be claimed as assets, at the petitions of the Majere Estate, 'International Correspondence School, United Kingdom' and 'International Correspondence School, Canada'.

20130121: Education Holdings 1 Inc., now no longer including Penn Foster, files Chapter 11 bankruptcy petition. $7 million dollar loan tap approved.

20130318: 'REVUQ', the stock exchange code for 'Education Holdings 1 Inc Com Stk (DE)' removed from stock exchange. Cusip# 28141C104.

201303: Education Holdings 1 Inc exits chapter 11.

20130609: In filings the Majere Estate requests expediting of legal proceedings, fearing 'nothing left on the bone', specifically requests all training materials copyrights of 1951-1991, but declines to purchase trademarks or any other assets. The Majere Estate publicly states that any such works so obtained will be offered via the ICS Archive and the Hathi Trust.





2013.06.12